Beef by any name is ???

One of the fun things about trying to study menus in Spain is figuring out the correct terms for ‘beef’. Here is the USA, and especially in Nebraska, the second largest beef producing state in the USA (surprise, Texas is first, obviously, but what about Montana or Colorado?), it’s just beef (and if beef, as in a steak, is not explicitly stated it can be safely assumed).

Now the cuts of beef (or any meat) is yet another subject, most menus include ‘beef’, but what do they call it. It’s almost always “grilled” (various names for that) either on a hot iron cooking surface or over coals on a grate. IOW, it’s some kind of steak and as best I can tell, from looking at photos and reading descriptions, it’s more or less the generic “steak” (almost certainly beef in the USA). It’s hard to tell from the menu whether you’d get an old tough piece of cow (most likely) or something a little better. Of course in beef crazy parts of the USA there are lots of terms as well.

But is beef just beef and it doesn’t much matter, i.e. red meat cooked fairly rare. Now Spain certainly has an ample supply of lamb (lots of names for that) or pork (uncured, fairly simple, i.e. cerdo and cured, well, lots of names for that).  If you’re not avoiding red meat you’re fairly safe getting almost anything that is “grilled” (mistakenly often called barbecued in the USA, which is rarely the case, since real BBQ is something entirely different, both the meat itself and the method of cooking).

The most common term (from my non statistically significant analysis) is ternera , which most dictionaries would call ‘veal’. But this is not really veal as we’d think of it, especially relevant to Italian style veal preparations. In Spain this seems to just be, mostly, a young cow, not the anemic milk-fed very young calf you might think of as veal.

Now as an outsider (and not as a butcher or rancher) I believe ternera is just a young cow, not much different from feedlot beef in the USA. Any USA producer of beef faces the issue that at some point you’re spending more money to keep a cow alive than that cow is gaining in commercial meat, so most feedlot beef is actually fast growing young cows. It is more gourmet (and much more expensive) to have more mature, larger cows, especially “free range” (I’ve sometimes seen terms that imply this in Spain) or even more expensive “grass fed”. So my guess is that ternera is most restaurants is not much different than generic “beef” one would find in the USA.

Now terms for beef in Spanish are also complicated because some of the countries in Western Hemisphere, esp. Argentina, are big beef producing (and consuming) countries and so you may encounter terms for beef, in dictionaries or web searches, that would rarely apply in Spain. But here are a few I’ve managed to collect:

carne vacuna: beef
Ternera de leche: veal
Añojo or ternera: 1-2 years old
Novillo: 2-4 years old
Buey: castrated male over 4 years old
Vaca: female over 4 years old
Toro: uncastrated male over 4 years old

Now vaca is somewhat common (in my sample of menus in Spain) and is, by dictionary lookup, just ‘cow’, i.e. again beef.  buey is less common, but as per the definitions above that’s because it’s from an older animal and thus probably even more expensive, even though it’s also probably tougher (to a degree tender and tasty are conflicting terms when it comes to beef).

The other term one finds, not in the list above, is de res which seems difficult to define and also is less commonly used in Spain.

But one amusing difference in Spain than the USA is that rather old cows seem to be an especial treat (when done properly). Apparently Spain imports older cattle and fattens them up. When you see photos of the raw cut of meat the fat is thick and very yellow compared to the usual whiter fat. I suppose I could be sold on this as an interesting meal, but it doesn’t sound likely. So while chuleton is common (for the older cows) you also encounter what may be very specialized term of txuleton (the Basque equivalent and likely even less common except in northern Spain).

Now as to eating toro I’ll leave that to others. I suppose Spain has to do something with all those bulls killed in the ring but I can’t imagine this would be a top-notch culinary experience.

So back to ternera – why is that so common? I’ve seen two explanations: 1) younger cows are butchered to reduce the chance of having mad cow disease, plausible but the term itself is older than the concern over mad cow disease, and, 2) that raising cattle to older age isn’t very compatible with the agriculture in Spain, either as “free range” and/or “grass fed” which is an expensive (and land intensive) way to get good beef, so really the economics and process of raising cattle in Spain, somewhat like feedlots in USA, encourages early “harvest” of the animal to human food.

While a simple grilled steak may be a “safe” choice at a Spanish restaurant I wouldn’t expect that to be a very desirable selection. The roast lamb almost certainly seems more delectable.

Probably by any name (and cooking technique) the various terms for beef will put on your plate something you can eat as a good protein source (assuming you even can stand red meat, avoid any of these terms if you don’t like meat) and maybe sometimes it will be a tasty choice. Coming from a part of the USA (originally Texas, now #2 in beef Nebraska, famous for its steakhouses) I imagine I’d always find this edible (and some “beef” I had in Germany was dubious as edible) so probably it’s hard to tell from just the menu alone the quality of the beef you’ll be eating.

 

 

 

 

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Last 100km + some menu translations

It’s been a while since I’ve made any posts related to the primary purpose of this blog, which is analyzing menus in Spain in order to construct a translation application.  So now I’ll do a quick return to that kind of post.

In order to explore restaurants in Spain (and as an incentive to keep churning out miles on my treadmill in the basement) I’m converting exercise miles into locations along the Camino de Santiago and today I’ve reached the very last place you can start a trek and still qualify (need at least 100km) for a Compostela which looks to me to imply starting the Portomarín, at least along the route of Camino Frances and that’s where I just arrived after my 436.1 miles of virtual trek. Actually I think this remaining distance is probably some of the better real trek even if it is only a few days.

And there, in this relatively small town I also found a good restaurant, in Portomarín to consider for understanding menus and then relating a couple of points to you, Dear Reader. So I have to honor copyright and not put other people’s pictures in my posts I strongly suggest you go to maps.google.com and use this search “O Mirador, Portomarín, Spain”. Not to be plugging this restaurant but there are over a thousand photos accessible through the Google Maps site and lots of pictures of zamburiñas which Google Translate doesn’t understand, despite these being very common and popular in Galicia as well as an icon of the entire Camino pilgrimage.

Now the main way I study menus is to extract them into some working documents I created and then get the Google Translation. Generally GT does fairly well but it also misses or botches some terms. That then sends me into my research, using various dictionaries and food sites and just plain old searches to get clues to figure out a better (as needed) translation of the menu items. So for instance, zamburiñas which Google Translate doesn’t know Google search can easily find and even reference a Wikipedia article for ‘variegated scallop’. First in my search results is an article in Spanish, Diferencias entre vieiras y zamburiñas, which is quite helpful.

When I started this project over a year ago I actually knew no Spanish. I ignored advice to actually learn Spanish since I was convinced I could succeed without doing that. But as I admitted in earlier posts I realized the advice was right and so I’ve actually been plowing through learning the language, so in fact, I could mostly translation this key sentence (from the article above): Las zamburiñas son de unas dimensiones más reducidas comparado con las vieiras. Which of course doesn’t mean much unless you know (in addition to the other words) that vieira is the conventional term of ‘scallop’, that is the typical standard size (and the source of the shells on all the peregrino’s packs or on the trail signs).  So in case you can’t read the sentence (even though it’s got a lot of cognates to English) it just means that zamburiñas are much smaller vieiras. What that doesn’t tell is that these are quite popular (and widely available) in Galician and the ones shown in the photos connected with O Mirador make it clear (and persuasively looking delicious as well).

Now let’s consider the restaurant’s name. One of the menu items, Parrillada O Mirador, which Google translates as ‘Grill O Lookout’ is the typical highly literal translation GT does, without paying any contextual attention to the discourse, i.e. O Mirador is the name of the restaurant and parrillada is a diminutive term you more frequently see, which is parrilla, which is one of several terms that gets loosely translated as ‘grilled’ (usually with a la preceding it). In contrast with a la plancha which is also usually translated as ‘grilled’, plancha is usually an iron flat (i.e. the flattop grill in many restaurants) and parrilla is an actually grate over a wood or charcoal fire and thus what most of us home cooks would consider “grilled”.

Fine, but what about mirador being translated as ‘lookout’. This is why I want you to do the Google search and see the photos. spanishdict.com translates mirador as either ‘enclosed balcony’ or ‘lookout’ which it turns out, from photos, both equally apply. This restaurant is at the top of a hill overlooking the river and adjacent valley, but it also has a wraparound enclosed balcony for dinners. Looks like a fun place.

I had planned on covering some more interesting bits from the menu but I’m out of time (other duties call) and so I close with the promise that I’ll get back to writing about menus (yeah, sure).

Glossary Updated

This post describes a recent process to update the glossary found on this blog. I believe a reader should know how a glossary is assembled in order to know how much to  trust its accuracy so I’m trying to be as transparent about process as possible. Furthermore my glossary has two “biases”: 1) it is aimed at terms found in Spain, not any Spanish term from anywhere, and, 2) I (mostly) only include terms I’ve actually found on the hundreds of  menus from restaurants in  Spain I’ve collected and analyzed to create a highly curated corpus. So while the glossary has considerable effort in constructing it naturally it still has errors as it was manually compiled. But I believe it is one of the better and more exhaustive glossaries you’ll find, at least for free on the Net.

After eight more days of work since my post about this effort I decided to call it “done” and update my glossary page as version 4.0. The glossary gained about 150 items, had numerous errors corrected (especially spelling, especially accents), had some definitions changed or enhanced, and adopted my “syntax” to show all the forms of this word under under a single “lemma” (just learned this term from linguistics).

Despite all the work I did there are still mistakes, omissions, inconsistencies in the lemma representations and other errors. This is the challenge of manually editing a large amount of material, even while trying to be very careful. Each time I do this manually I learn a bit more about how I’ll have to create the software to create and manage a properly curated corpus which I’ll need for my translation application.

Not every term in this glossary is really a “translation” to English as often there is no translation. So instead, based on terms I have found in the many menus from Spain restaurants that I’ve analyzed as the “raw” data, I have sometimes had to supply a description instead of either a “definition” or a translation. For instance, I researched and added most of the names of grapes used in Spanish wines, olives used in tapas and cheeses used in various dishes. While one might translate Cabrales as “blue cheese” this isn’t that helpful so descriptions work better.

So almost every term in my glossary I have found in menus. There are more terms in the various glossaries I’ve found and assembled but unless I actually see a term used in a menu in Spain I can’t be certain some term from some other glossary actually applies to Spain. Or, of course, Spanish food terms in other parts of the world may mean something entirely different than they do in Spain and so I’m trying (as best I can) to focus on the vocabulary one would encounter in Spain.

I may do some more “fixes” or additions to this glossary but I don’t expect to do another major revision. As it is this is now one of the largest glossary you’ll find anywhere on the net (and perhaps the easiest to access, just a single, albeit, long webpage, not some more complex access scheme). So while this glossary, like anything you find on the Net, is easily available one should ALWAYS be somewhat skeptical as the editor is human and makes mistakes, so check with authoritative sources for any terms that might really matter for you.

Still chugging along the Camino, still learning Spanish

I’ve been so much buried in digressions I haven’t had any time to post. You might remember that my project, which is the primary subject of this blog, is to find as many menus as possible from restaurants in Spain, figure out what they “mean” (not just purely translate), build up a corpus of menu terminology to drive the creation of an application to translate menus.

So much for that, as I haven’t been doing any of that for about a month. In addition I continue to do stationary exercise in my basement to try to stay in shape and/or control my weight (lose a little ideally) and potentially build up to a real walk. So I take my mileage on a treadmill and convert it to a location along the Camino (the French route). While I’ve kept up exercise I’ve meanwhile been digressing into another area that has interfered with my primary goals.

But nonetheless I can report that I’m now at mile 368.9, having covered 21 miles thus far in January. That may not sound like much, given most peregrinos can do 12-20 miles/day but I’ve also done 480 miles in just January on stationary bike or the entire Camino.

So I had planned to do a post when I was around 344 miles, which is then near the cruz de ferro, which as Henri Sebastian (in the movie The Way) says is a place of much significance. For those of you who watched the movie or especially those of you who have actually walked the Camino you know cruz de ferro is a small iron cross at the top of tall wooden pole with a bunch of pebbles at the base. The idea is that pilgrims carry a stone from there starting location and then deposit it along with a prayer. The location happens to also be almost the highest point along the entire route.

It all looks very quaint in the movie but looking at that location via my “virtual” walk (i.e. looking at Google Maps, satellite views and the geotagged photos Google shows; you can search for ‘cruz de ferro’ and see what I’m talking about, I don’t reproduce photos from online sources due to implied copyright) it’s not quite the same as the image of the movie. The site is near a major road and is surrounded by parking lots and picnic areas. The cross itself is unimpressive so only interesting due to its historical perspective. Plus visitors leave a lot of mess at the site so again it’s not so quaint.

Also in the movie a collection of rustic signposts is shown. It turns out that’s just a short distance from the cross in the town of Manjarín (you can search for this to see). It appears to be part of a somewhat bizarre albergue/bar near all those signs, the Manjarín Encomienda Templaria.  That too is a bit less quaint than the movie made it look. So much for fiction.

And this raises an interesting point that I couple with other observations. A “virtual” walk certainly isn’t the same as a real one, but I’ve “seen” enough to get a much better understanding of what the Camino is like. And, frankly, a lot of it isn’t that great. The people who have the spiritual connection to the route don’t care, but for merely a “tourist” who’d like a more physical experience than riding tour buses I now question whether I’d really want to ever walk the Camino.

Or at least the classic (aka French) route. So now I’ve begun to focus on Camino del Norte route. What is still appealing to me is visiting the northern (Atlantic) coast of Spain, from France to Galacia. The country looks prettier (certainly greener) and I think the food would be better. Since my wife doesn’t want to do the walking as a compromise we’ll do part tourist stuff (driving, hitting hot spots like Bilboa) and then some more rural touring in the vicinity of the Camino del Norte and thus have some of the same experience.

But that’s in the future.  Now as to the digressions that are bogging me down.

My original idea was that I could merely focus on a mechanical aid to “translate” the written menus without actually learning Spanish. It’s not that I didn’t want to learn Spanish, I just saw that as too difficult. My sister (RIP) disagreed with my idea and said I should learn the language. So as I recently posted I’ve started to do that since I suspect some conversation with camareros  (waiters) would be required.

But I’m not going to fill this blog with many comments about my efforts. Any reader interested in that language has a lot better resources than I can provide. And my personal issues with it are mostly a digression so I don’t want to fill this blog with my adventures. But I’ll mention a bit.

As I previously posted I found what first appeared to be a good resource for learning a bit of conversational Spanish, which I do think I’d need to be able to order in restaurants. So I’m doing the Duolingo online study and have had decent results, thus far (up to about 600 words now, still struggling with verbs, of course). But as useful as Duolingo is I find that I fairly quickly master their “skills” (aka lessons) but then almost as fast forget most of what I learned. Without repeating some of the vocabulary (or having some other way to practice) I forget.

So, naturally, given an entire lifetime of developing software I began to think about building my own drills. I’ve done this before, several times in fact. Basically I’ve built software “flash cards” but with “intelligent” repetition, where I’ve developed some, not so good, algorithms to maximize drill on the vocabulary (or to some degree grammar) on what I’m not getting. Now learning vocabulary and grammar are helpful but speaking, and worse, hearing Spanish is tough. Duolingo helps a bit for hearing, but Spanish is a language my ear/brain simply don’t get. First of all, most Spanish speakers speak really quickly (this, I’ve found from online sources, is well known in comparison to other languages). And even with Duolingo, the full speed recorded sentences that I have to either translate or simply write what I hear, I miss lots of little bits. I have a terrible time hearing the gender or verb tenses which can be critical. I figure I can botch my pronunciation, as well as gender or conjugation, and probably still be understood, but hearing any response is really going to be tough. But the better I know the vocabulary, without a big mental delay to translate in my head, the more likely I can understand the spoken part. Fortunately there are many Spanish language TV channels in my cable subscription, often with good subtitling, so I have some opportunity, beyond Duolingo, to “practice” hearing, which will be more important to me than actually speaking well.

So, of course I started working on my own software to supplement Duolingo. That does have advantages over just using online courses. To write software one really has to understand some of the structure of the language (“teaching” something to a computer is a good way to find out what I do and don’t understand). So, for instance, I just finished, after considerable study and coding, how to do all the conjugations of regular verbs. And I’ve extracted all the vocabulary I’m learning in Duolingo to put into drills as well. So, IOW, I’ve switched from learning about menus to learning the language to writing code to help me learn the language. Hence, the “digressions” that have diverted my time from my original goal.

But I’m beginning to see the light at the end of that tunnel (plus my coding skills were rusty, so doing my menu translation app will now be a bit easier) and maybe I can get back to my original plan and more, hopefully, interesting posts about menus, instead of my experience with learning Spanish or writing programs.

So stay tuned when I get back on track.

 

Quiero hablar más español

It’s been quite a while since my last post. In addition to all the activities of the holidays I have continued, sporadically, to work on my project that is one of the subjects of this blog. So now I can report some progress.

As a reminder I am (slowly) working my way to develop a mobile application to translate restaurant menus in Spain. To accomplish this I am finding many menus from restaurants in Spain (only Spain to avoid Spanish terms from other Spanish-speaking lands). I translate these using machine translation (mostly Google Translate), then looking for discrepancies in that translation method and using either online dictionaries or Google searches to make better “guesses” about translation. Often terms on menus are not translated accurately (or at all) by machine translation

Once I have accumulated enough raw data (a never ending process) I can create a corpus with Spanish terms and the best English translation I can produce with a “confidence” factor (expressed as a probability). Once the corpus is large enough I’ll write code to extract the best food related (and a few other terms) vocabulary with the highest confidence levels of the accuracy of the translation. Once the vocabulary is “complete” (again a never ending process) I can build my application and then test it on all the menus I’ve accumulated. I’ll judge how well I’ve done this by expecting my translation tool to work much better than other machine translations.

Fine, a useful exercise as someday I hope to actually need to do this while touring Spain, an indefinite “wish” for me. Being able to accurately translate menus, as well as having knowledge of Spain’s cuisine I’d be able to wisely select my choices.

But, my sister, who was quite dedicated to mastering Spanish, albeit focused more on Mexican cuisine, was critical of my approach. Instead of just building an application her strong suggestion was merely that I should just become fluent in Spanish. A fine idea, but one I find very challenging.

Several times in my past I’ve attempted (not very vigorously) to learn Spanish. Since I lived much of my life in California some fluency in Spanish is almost a necessity. I first tried, decades ago, using the best technology then available, i.e. cassette tapes and accompanying text. Ugh. That was a bust. Later as computer tutorials became more common I also tried those, initially using DVDs (as the sound source, later just online voice recordings). These attempts all failed for me.

Why? For one thing I’m not very good at foreign languages. While I studied both French and German in several years of school classes I never got very far with those. My first trip to Germany was a joke at how badly I could either speak or hear. My only real exposure to having to use French was in Québec, during the time when speaking French was a strong “political” issue. I had a bit more success with that partly because everyone, e.g. waiters in restaurants, insisted on French. My stumbling attempts were at least considered a sufficiently sensitive effort that I had some success.

But with Spanish I have a different problem. The sounds of the language are much more alien to my ear – I really can’t hear the words, especially since, it seems to me, native speakers speak very fast and to my ear the words are run together. And, my attempts at speaking were even worse than my attempts to hear and understand. So this has been very discouraging and so I rejected my sister’s urging to just actually learn the language. Additionally I had the joke running through my head that her years of vigorous effort were analyzed by several other people that she had atrocious pronunciation, barely intelligible to a native Spanish speaker. If she couldn’t do it how could I possibly succeed.

BUT, in my effort to translate menus I’ve also found a serious stumbling block. Even with English menus often I need to have some conservation with the server to really understand the menu. And as I translated more and more menus I found this was even more true in Spain. Certainly discussing food with a knowledgeable server adds to the enjoyment of food (another lesson I learned from my sister who was more skilled at cooking than me and through example demonstrated how dining was more pleasant after discussing menu items in some detail).

So I happened to stumble on a new possible learning method. Just happening on an article on the Net about the best apps for “your new smartphone” (naturally timed with the assumption of Christmas gifts) I discovered Duolingo. Previously I’d done the demos with several of the subscription or purchased online tools with little success. But at least: a) Duolingo was free, and, b) it was available for my phone and so I could do the exercises at any time, not just during some study time while on my computer.

So I downloaded the app (both to phone and multiple computers) and committed myself to really giving an earnest effort to learn, at least some basic Spanish. Now, as best I know, traveling in Spain in the larger cities, especially those popular with tourists, probably doesn’t require speaking or hearing Spanish. When i visited Portugal I knew zero Portuguese but managed to get by OK (with some help from hotel staff making phone calls for me). And I managed to get by in both Japan and China, although with considerable help from the people I was visiting.

But my interest in visiting Spain is out in the countryside, initially focusing on the Camino de Santiago (the French route). Now I’m looking more at the Del Norte route since that part of Spain is more appealing to me that the dull plodding through country that looks a bit too much like the Great Plains or Central Valley of California. In such areas I would expect that at least some minimal conversational skill would be necessary. My hope would be: a) I could ask Spanish speakers to speak more slowly and thus hear each word, and, b) that my poor pronunciation wouldn’t prevent them from (mostly) understanding me.

So I’ve now worked as hard as I can on Duolingo. I strongly recommend this for anyone following my blog who might have the same need, especially as it is free (gracias to the community who create these lessons). I’ve made it through 12 days and 12 of the lessons. Duolingo requires a LOT of repetition and thus this forces me to work hard enough at estudio that I actually have made some progress.  Even the sentence I used as the title of this post would have been impossible for me prior to Duolingo.

In the first part of each exercise Duolingo introduces one to vocabulary (and without the more academic approach to grammar, i.e. simple conjugation of verbs). Then the exercises move more and more to responding to spoken phrases or sentences by: a) writing what was said in English, and, b) much harder, writing what was said in Spanish. Each exercise gets steadily harder making it difficult to “guess” and thus requiring actually learning something, especially when one has to actually type the Spanish (from an utterance), especially being picking about getting gender and verb conjugation right. The sheer repetition is working for me.

Despite my best progress ever attempting to learn Spanish I: a) still find it difícil to “hear” the utterance spoken at full speed.  I often either cannot hear the spaces between words or miss subtle bits (I really have trouble hearing una vs un). But since I must get every drill question right before I can proceed I muddle through. So thus far Duolingo reports I’ve now encountered 308 words (many useless for my purpose, also they count each version of a verb as a separate word). Thus far, as far as verbs go I’m still only in the present tense and with the singular persons (figuring out at usted is third person like él or ella was fun since Duolingo mostly uses the informal second person tú  as ‘you’, which often would be rude for me to use in conversation).

While Duolingo focuses on conversation instead of the typical more “academic” language study (all the grammar details, especially conjugations) I’ve done more exploration with other tools (especially spanishdict.com and Wikipedia) to go beyond the Duolingo simple lessons. I’m accumulating some of my own “lessons” to supplement the Duolingo lessons.

Now another challenge for me is that I’ve also learned, in past language learning efforts, that I’m fairly good at immediate duration memory. So while I’m intensely involved I learn to recognize many words. Unfortunately weeks later I’ve forgotten most of those. So, with Duolingo I actually repeat finished exercises to continue repetition which is key.

BUT, repeating everything is time-consuming and not that helpful. The real repetition I need to do is the vocabulary (or sometimes grammar) that I do badly. So now I’m thinking about another bit of programming for my own learning tool.

Once before I built a fairly complex bit of code to extend my English vocabulary. Using something built into Kindle I would mark English words that I either didn’t know at all (like reading more “academic” texts that use more esoteric vocabulary) or that I wasn’t really sure about. Kindle had a drill application that accumulated the words I’d mark as I encountered them in some book. But the Kindle drill, like Duolingo, wasn’t very “smart” about focusing my drill time on the words that gave me the most trouble. So in my own app I developed a scoring system that adjusted my drill to the words I most often missed and also then made sure all but the easiest (for me) words were at least repeated some. I spent a lot of time tuning how that algorithm worked but never was completely satisfied with it.

So with Duolingo as a model (incomplete for what I need) and all my past efforts at learning languages I soon will begin to build my study app (a fancy version of the classic flashcards, especially for verbs and gender). I can move all my Duolingo vocabulary to that app, plus much of what I’ve accumulated from menu study, plus just grabbing more words not found in either source from either: a) various lists I’ve found of the “most common” Spanish words, or, b) from going through a couple of dictionaries, tourist phrase books and grammar books I’ve purchased for my Kindle.

Eventually I would expect my drill app to be sufficient to potentially get by in parts of Spain where I might not find any English speakers. One thing I have learned from my foreign travel is that travel itself (public transportation, getting directions) often requires speaking to people who don’t know English (say, unlike typical tourist destinations, i.e. city hotels, museums and restaurants).

But all this is just a start. I know, largely from my experience in Québec that “immersion” is the real way to learn a language. To be someplace where there is no English mandates that I at least stumble through some sort of conversation to get what I need. Mi esposa loved her weeks in Oaxaca and wants to go back (which I’ve resisted) so perhaps I’ll give in and make the trip she wants as preparation for Spain (just as Québec can be a shorter preparation trip for going to France).

So, I won’t belabor this point much more in posts since I’ve focused this blog on food in Spain and the Camino. My efforts to learn a language are probably even more boring to my readers. But I will supplement some of my posts purely about food terms with a bit more of the conversational stuff I pick up through this other study.

 

 

A few words from Astorga

As I mentioned in my previous post I lost a long and heavily researched post about something unusual I found in the area around Astorga, or more properly La Maragatería (link is to Spanish language site) is a Spanish region located in the central area of the province of León. It seems there is a local meal (multiple courses) that many restaurants promote, the cocina maragato (link is to Spanish language site). While I won’t try to reconstruct my entire post about this I will recover a few things.

cocina maragato is a meal of multiple courses: meat, vegetables/legumes and soup but it has the unusual feature of being eaten in reverse of the normal order. This idea is summed up in this explanation from one of the restaurants serving this meal (original Spanish from website on the left, Google Translation on right, items of interest in bold).

El cocido maragato tiene la peculiaridad de comerse al revés.  

Primero las carnes, luego los garbanzos y verduras y por último, la sopa.

Estos tres servicios se denominan, en la zona, “vuelcos”. 

The cooked maragato has the peculiarity of eating upside down.

First the meats, then the chickpeas and vegetables and finally, the soup.

These three services are called “rollovers” in the area.

First, al revés can be translated as ‘upside down’ but it has multiple translations according to its Wiktionary entry:  as an adjective, ‘inverted (with respect to something)’ and as an adverb, ‘1) in the opposite direction or order, 2) back first, 3) inside out, 4) the other way around, and, 5) upside down’. revés alone has various definitions:  back, wrong side, other side, inside. Now given the numerous explanations of cocina maragato it’s clear the most useful translation, in this context is the ‘in the opposite direction or order’ since that is the key feature of this meal.

Second, my first encounter with cocina maragato was seeing vuelcos on multiple menus, such as: Primer vuelcoSegundo vuelco and Tercer vuelco. These are headings in the menu where one would normally see platos (in typical menu context, ‘courses’). So the translation as ‘rollover’ was definitely mysterious until one understands the cocina maragato context.

Still none of the online dictionaries have caught up to this meaning of vuelcos as they go with the simpler and more literal translations: ‘upset’, ‘spill’ or ‘complete change’. Interestingly Google’s choice of ‘rollover’ doesn’t appear but it is found in a reverse lookup of the English ‘rollover’ in spanishdict.com. So it’s hard to think of a single word translation that would imply the correct meaning in this context, but ‘inversion’ (or clumsy, ‘reversed course’) would probably be closer than ‘rollover’.

And since I can’t recreate the entire post I’ll just cover one other word that I’ve often seen on menus in the context that this restaurant uses:

El Cocido Coscolo no es sino un agradecido heredero del cocido tradicional maragato.

Sobre esa base, hemos introducido algunos cambios que hacen de nuestra propuesta algo diferente.

Su principal valor es la elaboración propia de los ingredientes.

The Cocido Coscolo is nothing but a grateful heir to the traditional cocido maragato.

On that basis, we have introduced some changes that make our proposal somewhat different.

Its main value is the preparation of the ingredients.

This restaurant, Restaurante Coscolo, is explaining how its eponymously named Cocido Coscolo is its version of cocido maragato. The word I’m focusing on is propuesta which I’ve seen on numerous menus and Google has always translated it as ‘proposal’.  In other encounters with this word ‘proposal’ made some sense in the context it is used but never seemed quite right, to me, as the translation. Dictionaries go further with these literal translations: ‘offer’ or ‘design’, or ‘nomination’ (in the sense of proposal of a candidate).  While the ‘nomination’, according to the dictionary would clearly apply to a person for a job/office, not a particular preparation, it nonetheless fits. Along with the idea of ‘offer’ or ‘design’. I’d use the translation, ‘take’, as in the phrase “our take on the traditional xxx is yyy”.

But this would be clumsy to have to explain this rather than just use ‘take’ as translation (which certainly wouldn’t fit other contexts). And this will be a challenge for the app I intend to build and suggests that one feature of the app has to be the ability to put a single word in the translation but touching that word would bring up a popup dialogue with a longer explanation to provide the context that is too verbose to include directly in the translation. So analyzing this menu and word provides insight to a UI feature I should include.

I had more about this whole area and other restaurants and this meal but this is all I can reconstruct in a reasonable time. You’ll just have to do your own research if you want more.

 

 

 

Additions to glossary

The glossary page in this blog, at the moment, has been compiled by hand. This is NOT the process I intend to use for my definitive glossary to embed in my translation app since hand compilation is subject to numerous errors, plus the source material may be incorrect. But I like having some result even before I manage to generate a definitive glossary where each entry is found in numerous sources and checked against authoritative guides.

In the past I’ve searched for glossaries all over the Net and manually consolidated them. The result was a mess due to: a) often the source glossary had mistakes made by whoever compiled it, b) the Spanish terms may not apply to Spain which is my focus (for example, hongo is mushroom in most of Latin America but rarely used in Spain), and, c) terms from a glossary may not overlap as I want with actual references on menus (in Spain) which is my focus.

All that said, nonetheless I continue to make additions. In this case I was looking at some travel books and cookbooks I’d gotten on my previous fascination from Spain and realized I had the Langenscheidt Pocket Phrasebook (Spanish), 2006 edition, which includes a 1400 word dictionary. So I fairly quickly went through the dictionary and extracted words that relate to food or to restaurants. From that list I found which were not already in my v3.2 of the glossary. Now I’ve updated my glossary page, but here I’ll show what kinds of words were missing (previously the glossary page had come entirely from extracts of menus). A few of these terms, I realized, should also be included in my restaurant terms page, so that has been updated as well.

abierto open
achicoria chicory
amarg{o|a} sour
aromáticas herb
asiento seat
avena oats
batido milkshake
boca mouth
bombilla bulb
botella bottle
brazo arm
brécol broccoli
bufet buffet
caballa mackerel
cabeza head
calle street
camarer{o|a} waiter/waitress
carajillo coffee with brandy
cartilago cartilage
cena dinner
centeno rye
cerebro brain
cereza cherry
cerrado closed
cervecería beer hall
cerveza de barril draft beer
cerveza rubia lager
champán champagne
cóctel cocktail
col cabbage
comer to eat
comestibles groceries
composición ingredients
coñac brandy
concha shell
condimentad{o|a} seasoned
confitería candy store
conserva canned food
cortado espresso with a dash of milk
crema de leche coffee creamer
cruasán croissant
cubiertos silverware
cuchillo knife
cuello neck
cuenta bill
cuerpo body
desnatada low-fat
destilería brewery
diente tooth
dinero money
endibia[s] endive, correct spelling as previous was wrong
entero whole
entrada entrance
erizo de mar sea urchin
especias spices
espeto skewered
espina fish bone
espumoso sparkling (in wine context)
estómago stomach
estragón tarragon
estrella star
factura bill
fruta del tiempo seasonal fruit
ginebra gin
gofres waffles
gratuito free of charge
guayaba guava
helada frost
hervid{o|a} boiled
hervid{o|a} cooked
hierba herb
higos fig
hornillo stove
hueso bone
infusion de hierbas herbal tea
jardín garden
jarra jug, pitcher
langosta lobster
lengua tongue
limonada soda
macedonia de frutas fruit salad
manzanilla chamomile tea
margarina margarine
menú menu
mojado wet
molino mill
músculo muscle
nectarina nectarine
número size
ocupad{o|a} taken
ojo eye
pan integral whole grain bread
penecillo roll
pez espada swordfish
pierna leg
poleo de minta peppermint tea
polvo powder
pomelo grapefruit
primavera spring
propina tip
raíz root
reserved{o|a} reserved
ron rum
rosado róse
rosbif roast beef
sala hall, room
salami pepperoni
salida exit
sandía watermelon
sangre blood
sarro tartar
semana week
semiseco medium dry
sémola semolina
servicio restroom, service
servilleta napkin
suplemento surcharge
taberna bar
tea
tenedor fork
terraza terrace
trucha trout
uva grape
vajilla tableware
ventanilla counter (window)

 

Multilingual menus in Spain

I took a detour from studyingg restaurant menus in León to San Sebastian. San Sebastian is 189 air travel miles east of León, along the Atlantic coast and near the border of France. This puts it squarely in Basque Country and its restaurant menus reflect that.

San Sebastian is also a very popular tourist resort with extensive beaches, recreational activities, luxury accommodations and dining, 728 restaurants listed with Trip Advisor. Since it is a popular tourist destination I discovered multiple restaurants there have multilingual menus. Interestingly sometimes they are just bilingual in Castellano (aka Castilian, the most common version of Spanish) and Euskara (the name of the Basque language in Basque) – not surprising due to the cultural influences.

The restaurant I’ll be discussing was interesting in that instead of alternate menus in different languages (which sometimes don’t match very well) it has all its menu items in four language, including French and English. While I’ll show some “translations” within the menu are not literally accurate at least in this kind of menu I get what a person believes is the item in different languages instead of machine translation. So this is from BODEGA DONOSTIARRA located in Donostia which is the Basque name for San Sebastian. A typical example is:

Ensalada de morros con guindilla y cebolleta

Google Translate:

Morros salad with chilli pepper and chive

from the menu

Muturren entsalada, pipermina eta tipulinarekin

Salade de museau de porc avec le piment d oquer et l ́oignon

Pork snouts salad with spring onions and local green peppers

Now sometimes having the French helps clarify the item but my project is to create a corpus of corresponding terms in English and [Castilian] Spanish so the remainder of this post will focus on interesting issues in this menu. For the item above, however, I’ll note several issues:

  1. Google has usually missed morro (in context) but does literally translate the single word (not in context) to ‘nose’. My dictionary prefers ‘snout’ (in sense of an animal part) and lists ‘nose’ only in the sense of an airplane part and lists ‘lip’ and ‘mouth’ as colloquial terms for body parts. I wonder what is in the Google corpus used to train their AI that decides morro is just morro in English which generally means ‘A round hill or point of land’ from various dictionaries so certainly its “context” is not culinary.
  2. The translation of guindilla to ‘chilli pepper’ is interesting. First the ‘chilli’ version of the word is the British not the USA spelling (chili). Second usually chile (and chili is a dish, well known to me as I was born in Texas, no beans, of course) is used in combination with pepper, so chilli is kinda doubly wrong for me. And while guindilla can be used as the generic ‘chile pepper’ it is actually a quite specific variety of pepper popular in the Basque areas also known as piparras.
  3. And thirdly cebolleta (the diminutive of cebolla (onion)) has various translations (according to spanishdict.com) as ‘scallion’ or ‘green onion’ (in USA) and ‘spring onion’ (in UK). Another bit of evidence that Google Translation AI is trained on a UK derived corpus. And, while unlikely in this menu item, cebolleta can also be ‘chive’ which any gardener knows is not the same as a scallion (which presumably is the same as spring onion).

So this is a good menu to look for some issues in translation by comparing the human and machine translations (as well as my “guessing” using various searches and lookups). So here’s how I’m analyzing the items on this menu.

Spanish (from menu) Human translation (from menu) Google translation
Ensalada Donostiarra (pulpo, boquerón, antxoas, sardinillas, bonito, guindilla) Donostiarra salad: octopus, anchovies, baby sardines, tuna and local green peppers Donostiarra salad (octopus, anchovy, antxoas, sardines, bonito, chili pepper)

There are a couple of interesting issues here:

  1. Google didn’t translate antxoas because, of course, this is the Basque spelling whereas anchoa is the more common Spanish. But there is something else going on in that boquerón also translates to anchovy, which Google got. A search for the difference between anchoa and boquerón gets a lot of opinions, none I can label as definitive but generally (and especially in this area) boquerón is probably also cured with vinegar.

    antxoas may not be the same as the generic anchoa since I did find this, “The Cantabrian anchovy or Bay of Biscay anchovy (scientific name, Engraulis encrarischolus) is one of the specialties of Basque cuisine” which could be very relevant in the context of this menu. But the human translation omits any translation of antxoas (or instead, possibly omits boquerón). So you pays your money, you take your chances.

  2. sardinillas is not in my dictionary but the Spanish for ‘sardine’ is sardina. So here it looks like the human translation is helpful in that they’re interpreting the diminutive form of sardina as ‘little’ which is appropriate. Given sardines are already little (given those packed in tins) I wonder what this really means. No clue from either translation whether these might be fresh or cured sardines which is a major distinction in Italian cuisine.
  3. Google almost always doesn’t translate bonita but sometimes does  generate the literal ‘pretty’. Trusting Wikipedia as a reference source we see that bonita is a valid English translation as it refers to a specific tuna, “The skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) is a medium-sized perciform fish in the tuna family, Scombridae. It is otherwise known as the aku, arctic bonito, mushmouth, oceanic bonito, striped tuna, or victor fish.”. The human translator choose to just call this ‘tuna’.
  4. And continuing the discussion of guindilla (from previous example) the human translation is interesting, ‘local green peppers’. Given the low heat level of the specific guindilla pepper I can see just calling it a ‘green pepper’ (not exactly what the USA reference is to a bell (or sweet) pepper) and labeling it as ‘local’ seems to distinguish it from the generic chile pepper translation. To me the padrón peppers look the most like “green peppers” but those are typically found in Galicia and so wouldn’t be “local”.

This single example does show a real challenge in “translating” menus – what really is this dish? Even the human translation would leave you guessing. And thus this shows a real limit to what any translation can do.

So let’s look at a couple more items.

Pulpo vinagreta “Salanort” Picled Octopus Octopus vinaigrette “Salanort”

Our human translator has a bit of a spelling problem with what almost certainly is supposed to be ‘pickled’ which is not really quite the same as one usually finds for vinagreta (usually a vinaigrette). But neither the human translator or Google explain what Salanort is. I’m relatively confident in what I found which is “a family business located in the fishing village of Getaria, 30 minutes from San Sebastian”. This qualifier appears several times for this restaurant and is typical of one of those terms that is a specific reference (aka brand) and has no translation BUT still may have some consequence to the customer.

Pintxo paleta ibérica Cured iberian ham pintxo Pintxo paleta ibérica

Google doesn’t translate paleta but it’s easily found in dictionaries as ‘shoulder [blade]’.  The human translation calls this ‘ham’ despite ‘ham’ having the clear Spanish jamón and usually ham comes from the rear leg of the pig, not the shoulder (however, in USA the so-called ‘picnic ham’ can come from the shoulder). And ‘cured’ is basically redundant with already saying ‘ham’. pintxo is interesting in that Google doesn’t translate this at all and pintxo is the Basque for what is called pincho in other parts of Spain (and in English as well and it is NOT tapas, the humorous scene in the movie The Way revealed). ibérica, which is literally Iberian, is not helpful, purely as a translation, but one could hardly go to Spain and not know what this means (and it’s not really a reference to Iberian Peninsula as dictionary says but instead to a particular type of pig).

And while there are numerous other smaller translation issues in this menu I’ll close with this one:

Pluma ibérica de Guijuelo  “Guijuelo” iberian pen Iberian feather  from Guijuelo

Guijuelo is most likely a reference to a municipality located in the province of Salamanca, Castile and León known for their pork. Here I believe the human had to use a dictionary for translation as pluma can be ‘pen’ but more likely ‘feather’ as Google decided. However neither of this is either correct or useful translation. It turns out this is more descriptive “The pluma is a cut from the end of the loin, and is juicier than the presa steak or the solomillo tenderloin. Pluma is fairly thin, but leaner than the ‘secreto’ skirt steak.” from online supplier La Tienda who will sell you one.

 

I’m continuing with other menus from San Sebastian that are multilingual including an interesting one for sushi where I might get some Spanish terms, if they exist, as translations from Japanese. The adventures continue.

A simple hostal menu

I picked up my virtual trek pace a bit and so zoomed out of León. The GPS trace I found online splits just west of León and merges again at Hospital de Órbigo, about 20 miles from middle of León. I “took” the northern route and so passed through Villadangos del Paramo. There I found Hostal (guesthouse or hostel) Libertad (freedom or liberty) which has an embedded restaurant. While there was no website or online menu there was a photo of the menu on a chalkboard. I decided it would be interesting if I could translate it myself without the aid of any machine translation. However it was a bit of a ‘cheat’ because the menu had some minimal English translation also written in.

I don’t normally reproduce images in my posts that I find via Google Maps. But this is a simple image and I’m not appropriating any intellectual property by posting it. Furthermore if any of you Dear Readers happen to pass through Villadangos del Paramo I’m probably the Hostal Libertad, which I assume they won’t mind.

Somehow, after running this image through Photoshop and then WordPress it’s not as clear as I saw, but it gets the point across. It’s a bit difficult to read the handwritten script under the best of cases. But also I had a tough time distinguishing a’s for e’s. So the point is, really, that one needs to know the words internally so an ambiguous writing of the word still gets through.

So anyway here’s the fairly simple menu:

Menú del día    10€

That’s not too bad if the portions are large to feed a hungry pilgrim who’s just walked 25km.

(Pan, bebida, postre y café)

Great, I wonder what the drink (bebida) and postre (dessert) really are.

Horario: 13:00-16:00 / 19:00-23:00 h

Interesting, late lunch and late supper.

OK, in the table below is the Spanish (my transcription from the chalkboard, with a few spell checks against Spanish dictionaries), this restaurant’s terse English and my translation (machine and human) and some comments:

Lentejas estofades Lentils stew of lentils (I suppose I can’t imagine lentils anyway except a stew)
Ensalada mixte Mixed Salad mixed salad
Puerros con vinagreta Leeks vinaigrette leeks with vinaigrette
Espagueti con atún Espeguetti with tuna (the writer doesn’t know spaghetti is the translation) spaghetti with tuna
     
Merluza en salsa Hake in sauce hake in sauce
Lacón con pimientos pork (illegible, not visible on chalkboard) pork shoulder
Huevos fritos con salchicha Fried eggs with sausage fried eggs with sausage
Fritos de pescado Fried eggs (illegible, all not visible on chalkboard, but what I can see is wrong) fried fish

These are all quite ordinary items so I’d choose:  Espagueti con atún (a bit of carbo loading if doing long walk) and Lacón con pimientos. I suppose this is all filling enough to make up for a moderate calorie burn of 200cals/mile and 15 miles. But think about, typical human needs about 2000 calories/day just to stay alive, so this meal is not going to provide enough of the daily + exercise requirements.

Hey Joost (from the movie The Way) what else did you eat and not lose any weight.

 

 

 

a consultar about cecina

Even though I’ve now marched past León on my virtual trek I’m slowly plodding through the restaurant menus I found there. One menu, for the restaurant attached to Royal Collegiate of Saint Isidoro Hotel, has an English version as well as the Spanish. This is relatively rare and provides a unique opportunity to compare online machine translation of Spanish to the same material written in English. Of course, and as I found, the English text on a webpage may be different than the Spanish; after all it is aimed at a different audience and probably is not just a translation from the Spanish. Nonetheless a careful analysis may provide some interesting clues.

So I’ll start with a menu phrase, a consultar, which appears in three places (Spanish in first column, Google Translate in second, English from the website in third):

Pescado del Día (a consultar) Fish of the Day (to consult) Fish of the Day
Postre del día (a consultar) Dessert of the day (to consult) Dessert of the day
Domingo: Arroz / Fideuá (A consultar) Sunday: Rice / Fideuá (On request) Sunday: Rice / Fideuá (To consult)

Now consultar is a typical Spanish verb which has various meanings (the sense of the literal translation (in black) is marked in green:

  1. to consult (to seek advice from) (to refer for information to)
  2. to discuss with (to talk about)
  3. to look up (to look for)

or (Google translations of Spanish definition in green)

  1. Pedir información, opinión o consejo sobre una determinada materia (Ask for information, opinion or advice on a certain subject)
  2. Buscar información en una fuente de documentación (Search information in a documentation source)

Note that Google translated this differently as either ‘to consult’ or ‘on request’. Now to my sense the ‘on request’ makes less sense, either compared to dictionary definitions or that  por encargo is more common on menus for ‘on request’. Unfortunately the author of the English part on the website doesn’t provide an English equivalent in two cases and ‘to consult’ (the most literal translation) in the third.

So we’re really left without a good English equivalent. I would submit ‘ask your server’ as the common phrase you’d see in USA for these items. IOW, the X del día is a common phrase (less so in Spain) and ‘of the day’ in the USA. In most cases it means what the chef was interested in making today or what ingredients might have been available. So the customer can’t know, from the menu, what the item is and thus has to ask (btw, I don’t think this is the same as the “specials” often rattled off by servers so that wouldn’t be my preferred translation.).

So if I’m right (and I am getting the context right, if not the translation) this presents another interesting flaw in my project. There is NO way to read the menu and determine what this item is – you will have to speak to the server or the chef to find out and, of course, that requires some amount of fluency in both speaking and hearing Spanish (perhaps another type of aided communication app on a smartphone might work but unlikely the server would know how to use it; I tried this in China and totally confused a cab driver). My sister dismissed the idea of my project in lieu of just learning to speak and hear Spanish conversationally and maybe focus a bit more of restaurant and food vocabulary. I think this is a fine idea, but: a) it takes a lot of work I’d prefer software to do, and, b) I’ve actually tried and for some reason, despite modest fluency in a couple of other languages than English I just cannot hear Spanish (the sounds and the speed really confuse me, I watch movies with subtitles and rarely “hear” words I even know and know, from the subtitles, were in the audible portion). And like the jokes some more Spanish fluent people made about my sister my pronunciation would be awful and at minimum irritate a native Spanish speaker or very likely totally confuse them. So I have to try to continue on my path of using software (not brainware) to navigate menus. Perhaps I’ll just have to skip the del día items or perhaps see them on another table and point.

So on to cecina.

This is a common item on menus I’ve encountered before but it tends to be more feature on menus in Castilla y León. In fact this geographical interest is so strong there is also the specific Cecina de León, an IGP (Indicación Geográfica Protegida, EU equivalent protected geographical indication).  This specific item even has its own website (https://www.cecinadeleon.org/) explaining how it must be produced.

It’s not actually a mystery of what this is (although for a long time it was unavailable in the USA; oh, and now it appears actual cecina from Spain is still not available in USA so this is an imitation made in the style of León) but now you can buy it online where it is described:

Tender sliced cured beef with a deep red color and rich smoky flavor is León’s answer to jamón. This is cecina, a premium cut of beef cured with sea salt and smoked over oakwood with no preservatives. Cecina is Spain’s culinary secret, just as worthy of culinary acclaim as Spain’s famous hams. And like jamón, over thousands of years the people of Spain have transformed the curing of beef from a necessity to an art, creating a delicate, flavorful meat unlike any other in the world.

In another article I was saw it described as ‘chipped beef’ which would possibly be close but certainly an insult to this seriously expensive dried meat.

So, what should the translation be? Or is this one of those terms, say like chorizo or lomo, that you just have to know what it is?

But Google thinks it has the answer. Most of the time (and often it doesn’t translate cecina at all) Google thinks it is ‘jerky’. While the official description about its elaboración (method/recipe of production) has various similarities to most recipes for making jerky the best descriptions I can find is that jerky is not that equivalent.

So what does the English version of the menu at this restaurant say? Here are a couple of references, again with Spanish in first column, Google Translate in second and website English translation in third:

Ofrecemos servicios de corte de jamón/cecina, quesos artesanos al corte, cervezas artesanas… We offer ham / cecina cutting services, cut artisan cheeses, craft beers … We offer professional ham / beef jerky cutting services, sliced local artisan cheeses, craft beers and more.

Note that in this case Google didn’t translation cecina at all but the website does refer to it as ‘beef jerky’ and the human translation otherwise seems very close to the original Spanish.

And another reference:

Lunes: Salmorejo con Cecina IGP. Monday:  Salmorejo with Cecina IGP. Monday: Salmorejo with Smooked Beef  IGP.

Note that ‘smooked’ is in the menu itself as is another typo ‘Thuesday’ which certainly makes it look likely this is the work of a person.

And then our final reference:

El menú del cabildo es una
salmorejo de tomates de mansilla con cecina IGP, puerros de sahagun, escalibada de pimientos del Bierzo…
The menu of the cabildo is a
salmorejo de tomates de mansilla with cecina IGP, leeks of sahagun, escalivada of peppers of the Bierzo …
The Cabildo menu is a proposal ‘Salmorejo’ or cold-tomato soup made with local ‘Mansilla’ tomatoes and beef-jerky, ‘Sahagun’ leeks, ‘Escalivada’ or roasted vegetables on flat rustic bread and made with local ‘Bierzo’ peppers…

So here we see beef jerky again. So either the author believes calling it jerky will best describe it to an English speaking person or they had to use some dictionary lookup, which, btw, lists: ‘smoked’, ‘cured’ and ‘salted’ meat (each as a separate term when the elaboración explains ALL these steps are involved in creating cecina).

Now the imitation online stuff refers to cecina as “The “beef version” of jamón” and the picture shows a solid piece of meat whereas the elaboración  is quite clear the meat must be thinly sliced before any other processing so a solid ham-like chunk certainly doesn’t match the IGP definition.

And, finally, our sometimes reliable English version of Wikipedia adds this information in its description:

is made by curing beef, horse or (less frequently) goat, rabbit, or hare

Emphasis on ‘horse’! Since I’ve also found this item on a different León menu: Cecina de Burro. Now burro might be a brand or a geographical reference but it might also be, in fact its literal translation, ‘donkey’.  Pure beasts, work in the hot sun and when they’re worn out they end up on the table – no thanks.

So finally I might end up calling cecina “thin slice of mystery meat cured in salt, then dried (by heat or sun) and (usually, but not always) smoked”. So I think a consultar ties in nicely with cecina and strongly recommends spoken fluency to find out what you’re eating (or at least know the phrase ¿Qué animal es este de.