a consultar about cecina

Even though I’ve now marched past León on my virtual trek I’m slowly plodding through the restaurant menus I found there. One menu, for the restaurant attached to Royal Collegiate of Saint Isidoro Hotel, has an English version as well as the Spanish. This is relatively rare and provides a unique opportunity to compare online machine translation of Spanish to the same material written in English. Of course, and as I found, the English text on a webpage may be different than the Spanish; after all it is aimed at a different audience and probably is not just a translation from the Spanish. Nonetheless a careful analysis may provide some interesting clues.

So I’ll start with a menu phrase, a consultar, which appears in three places (Spanish in first column, Google Translate in second, English from the website in third):

Pescado del Día (a consultar) Fish of the Day (to consult) Fish of the Day
Postre del día (a consultar) Dessert of the day (to consult) Dessert of the day
Domingo: Arroz / Fideuá (A consultar) Sunday: Rice / Fideuá (On request) Sunday: Rice / Fideuá (To consult)

Now consultar is a typical Spanish verb which has various meanings (the sense of the literal translation (in black) is marked in green:

  1. to consult (to seek advice from) (to refer for information to)
  2. to discuss with (to talk about)
  3. to look up (to look for)

or (Google translations of Spanish definition in green)

  1. Pedir información, opinión o consejo sobre una determinada materia (Ask for information, opinion or advice on a certain subject)
  2. Buscar información en una fuente de documentación (Search information in a documentation source)

Note that Google translated this differently as either ‘to consult’ or ‘on request’. Now to my sense the ‘on request’ makes less sense, either compared to dictionary definitions or that  por encargo is more common on menus for ‘on request’. Unfortunately the author of the English part on the website doesn’t provide an English equivalent in two cases and ‘to consult’ (the most literal translation) in the third.

So we’re really left without a good English equivalent. I would submit ‘ask your server’ as the common phrase you’d see in USA for these items. IOW, the X del día is a common phrase (less so in Spain) and ‘of the day’ in the USA. In most cases it means what the chef was interested in making today or what ingredients might have been available. So the customer can’t know, from the menu, what the item is and thus has to ask (btw, I don’t think this is the same as the “specials” often rattled off by servers so that wouldn’t be my preferred translation.).

So if I’m right (and I am getting the context right, if not the translation) this presents another interesting flaw in my project. There is NO way to read the menu and determine what this item is – you will have to speak to the server or the chef to find out and, of course, that requires some amount of fluency in both speaking and hearing Spanish (perhaps another type of aided communication app on a smartphone might work but unlikely the server would know how to use it; I tried this in China and totally confused a cab driver). My sister dismissed the idea of my project in lieu of just learning to speak and hear Spanish conversationally and maybe focus a bit more of restaurant and food vocabulary. I think this is a fine idea, but: a) it takes a lot of work I’d prefer software to do, and, b) I’ve actually tried and for some reason, despite modest fluency in a couple of other languages than English I just cannot hear Spanish (the sounds and the speed really confuse me, I watch movies with subtitles and rarely “hear” words I even know and know, from the subtitles, were in the audible portion). And like the jokes some more Spanish fluent people made about my sister my pronunciation would be awful and at minimum irritate a native Spanish speaker or very likely totally confuse them. So I have to try to continue on my path of using software (not brainware) to navigate menus. Perhaps I’ll just have to skip the del día items or perhaps see them on another table and point.

So on to cecina.

This is a common item on menus I’ve encountered before but it tends to be more feature on menus in Castilla y León. In fact this geographical interest is so strong there is also the specific Cecina de León, an IGP (Indicación Geográfica Protegida, EU equivalent protected geographical indication).  This specific item even has its own website (https://www.cecinadeleon.org/) explaining how it must be produced.

It’s not actually a mystery of what this is (although for a long time it was unavailable in the USA; oh, and now it appears actual cecina from Spain is still not available in USA so this is an imitation made in the style of León) but now you can buy it online where it is described:

Tender sliced cured beef with a deep red color and rich smoky flavor is León’s answer to jamón. This is cecina, a premium cut of beef cured with sea salt and smoked over oakwood with no preservatives. Cecina is Spain’s culinary secret, just as worthy of culinary acclaim as Spain’s famous hams. And like jamón, over thousands of years the people of Spain have transformed the curing of beef from a necessity to an art, creating a delicate, flavorful meat unlike any other in the world.

In another article I was saw it described as ‘chipped beef’ which would possibly be close but certainly an insult to this seriously expensive dried meat.

So, what should the translation be? Or is this one of those terms, say like chorizo or lomo, that you just have to know what it is?

But Google thinks it has the answer. Most of the time (and often it doesn’t translate cecina at all) Google thinks it is ‘jerky’. While the official description about its elaboración (method/recipe of production) has various similarities to most recipes for making jerky the best descriptions I can find is that jerky is not that equivalent.

So what does the English version of the menu at this restaurant say? Here are a couple of references, again with Spanish in first column, Google Translate in second and website English translation in third:

Ofrecemos servicios de corte de jamón/cecina, quesos artesanos al corte, cervezas artesanas… We offer ham / cecina cutting services, cut artisan cheeses, craft beers … We offer professional ham / beef jerky cutting services, sliced local artisan cheeses, craft beers and more.

Note that in this case Google didn’t translation cecina at all but the website does refer to it as ‘beef jerky’ and the human translation otherwise seems very close to the original Spanish.

And another reference:

Lunes: Salmorejo con Cecina IGP. Monday:  Salmorejo with Cecina IGP. Monday: Salmorejo with Smooked Beef  IGP.

Note that ‘smooked’ is in the menu itself as is another typo ‘Thuesday’ which certainly makes it look likely this is the work of a person.

And then our final reference:

El menú del cabildo es una
salmorejo de tomates de mansilla con cecina IGP, puerros de sahagun, escalibada de pimientos del Bierzo…
The menu of the cabildo is a
salmorejo de tomates de mansilla with cecina IGP, leeks of sahagun, escalivada of peppers of the Bierzo …
The Cabildo menu is a proposal ‘Salmorejo’ or cold-tomato soup made with local ‘Mansilla’ tomatoes and beef-jerky, ‘Sahagun’ leeks, ‘Escalivada’ or roasted vegetables on flat rustic bread and made with local ‘Bierzo’ peppers…

So here we see beef jerky again. So either the author believes calling it jerky will best describe it to an English speaking person or they had to use some dictionary lookup, which, btw, lists: ‘smoked’, ‘cured’ and ‘salted’ meat (each as a separate term when the elaboración explains ALL these steps are involved in creating cecina).

Now the imitation online stuff refers to cecina as “The “beef version” of jamón” and the picture shows a solid piece of meat whereas the elaboración  is quite clear the meat must be thinly sliced before any other processing so a solid ham-like chunk certainly doesn’t match the IGP definition.

And, finally, our sometimes reliable English version of Wikipedia adds this information in its description:

is made by curing beef, horse or (less frequently) goat, rabbit, or hare

Emphasis on ‘horse’! Since I’ve also found this item on a different León menu: Cecina de Burro. Now burro might be a brand or a geographical reference but it might also be, in fact its literal translation, ‘donkey’.  Pure beasts, work in the hot sun and when they’re worn out they end up on the table – no thanks.

So finally I might end up calling cecina “thin slice of mystery meat cured in salt, then dried (by heat or sun) and (usually, but not always) smoked”. So I think a consultar ties in nicely with cecina and strongly recommends spoken fluency to find out what you’re eating (or at least know the phrase ¿Qué animal es este de.

Advertisements

Quick progress note: Passed León

I haven’t found time to do any posts (nor much menu research) but I have managed to keep plodding away on virtual trek and thus have “zipped” (a highly relative term) past León without commenting on a single restaurant. So 298.8 miles on foot and 6832.2 on bike (unfortunately exercise equipment not the more fun real thing).

My initial research to develop a list of restaurants with online menus was disappointing. My simplistic notion was that León was a large and sophisticated city and thus more likely to have upscale restaurants than previous cities along the Camino. But the initial results proved that assumption wrong.

I’ve developed a new technique, at least for cities, to find online menus. Instead of using Google Maps (works for smaller towns with just a few restaurants) I now use one of the crowdsource rating sites (to avoid a plug I won’t mention which). While I’ve had enough experience with rankings in USA restaurants I can visit to be skeptical of rankings they generally correlate. However, better ranked restaurants are not necessarily more likely to have websites or especially online menus.

So combining all the factors my list of menus to investigate, for León, is no larger than my list from Palencia (source of my previous posts). This is surprising since León is about three times the population. That said, León has less population than the second largest city in my midwest flyover state (Lincoln, Nebraska) and significantly smaller than my home city (or Columbus Ohio where I recently dined and have yet to post). So perhaps it’s not too surprising León doesn’t have that many larger restaurants that have online menus.

Now a question might be, what good does it do a restaurant to bother with an online menu? I think that in the USA it’s quite important but apparently that belief isn’t (at least fully) shared in Spain. This suggests to me comensales (guests) are more likely local and don’t decide where to eat based on websites. For my purpose it’s disappointing because I don’t get more diverse source material. What I have already learned is that restaurant food terminology is highly variable, by region or location, in Spain and thus to obtain the best corpus to generate my translator needs content from a geographically broad selection. But, obviously restaurants don’t have (or not have) online menus for that purpose.

So I have just begun to look at the León restaurant menus I did find. I’ve started in ranking order and thus hit two expensive and more sophisticated restaurants right away. Both have a strong showing in what would be labeled either as molecular gastronomy or modernist cuisine. So, despite a huge number of photos of a large number of dishes both of the top three restaurants only have a degustacion (tasting) menu online thus providing only a limited amount of raw data for my analysis and corpus.

So I can relate a few interesting translation issues (again this means where the machine translation, usually Google, doesn’t make the best choices, at least in menu context, or the terms on the menu don’t actually have a translation).

Menú seminal Weekly menu

This is the first time I’ve seen this on any menu even though it’s basically the same as degustacion (tasting) but with a time of year context, as they explain:

Nuestra oferta se compone exclusivamente de este menú degustación, que define la sensibilidad por la cocina y el respeto hacia el producto.

El ritmo frenético del mercado, propicia que en este menú entren y salgan productos constantemente, lo que impide en ocasiones que este siempre actualizado.

Our offer consists exclusively of this tasting menu, which defines the sensitivity for cooking and respect for the product.

The frenetic pace of the market, encourages this menu to constantly enter and exit products, which sometimes prevents it from being updated.

Note: Generally I’ve found that Google actually translates full sentence prose more effectively than the one line items on menus. Perhaps this does indicate their claim of using context actually does help.

So here are two items from this menu (the only restaurant in León with a Michelin star) that required more research than simple translation:

ciervo asado con castañas, patata y trompetas de los Muertos roasted deer with chestnuts, potatoes and trumpets of the dead
queso de El Palacio con brevas El Palacio cheese (artisan sheep cheese) with figs

In the first item ‘trumpets of the dead’ is actually a good translation but unhelpful. It turns out this is a particular type of mushroom (Craterellus cornucopioides) whose name stems from the fact that the edible one resembles a lethal one so I suppose this is a bit like eating fugu in Japan (which I’ve done and it was another bland white fish with a tiny bit of tingle). OTOH, queso de El Palacio is just a particular cheese that is a local specialty of León.

From another menu of the top-ranked restaurant, with more traditional Spain offerings rather than the Spain influenced modernist cuisine had a few carta (a la carte menu) and thus more content. Here are a couple of examples:

PISTO CASERO

con huevo frito y pimentón

PISTO

with fried egg and paprika

Pisto is just the name of a dish and thus one of those items, like gazpacho or paella, that really doesn’t have any kind of translation and thus one must know what it is. It is a vegetable stew (or thick sauce) that resembles ratatouille.

And

CACHOPO

“como en Asturias”

CACHOPO

“as in Asturias”

is another example of a particular dish, cachopo, that you just have to know what it is (Two large veal fillets and includes ham and cheese. The dish is eaten fried and hot after being breaded in eggs and breadcrumbs) before you decide to order it or not. Like most dishes there are multiple recetas (recipes) so often Google searches for a term like this will result in finding a receta instead of a description but if you’re a foodie that may be more helpful anyway.

LENGUA CURADA con lascas de queso y aceite de pimentón CURED LANGUAGE with cheese flakes and paprika oil

lengua is one of those words where the most probable literal translation is wrong in this context. In fact the most “obvious” literal translation is correct, i.e. ‘tongue’ which then can mean ‘language’. For menus it is ‘tongue’.

CREMA DE NÉCORAS

con langostinos

CREAM OF NÉCORAS

with prawns

Here Google had no translation but Google searches quickly revealed ‘velvet crab, Necora puber‘. As an informal observation, especially in regards to seafood, I’ve noticed that the Spanish term often is directly derived from the scientific (Latin) name of the creature. So as a hint this might be a good place to start searching.

And this one was probably the worst (least helpful) translation:

ALBÓNDIGAS DE VENADO

al Prieto Picudo

DEVICE BEDS

to Prieto Picudo

I can’t even quite decide why the poor translation occurs as there is little literal connection. albóndigas is fairly common on menus (plus a cognate of its Italian counterpart) so one I immediately recognized as ‘meatballs’, although in some menus in Spain it may be an item closer to ‘meatloaf’. Nothing about it translates to either ‘device’ or ‘beds’. Likewise venado has a simple (and presumably correct in this context) literal translation of ‘deer’ or as also listed as a culinary sense, ‘venison’. So literal translation would be much more useful, in this case. But Prieto Picudo has no translation but is easily found via searches as a particular type of grape local to  Castile and León (DO Tierra de Leon).

And finally a term I’ve often seen that doesn’t appear in dictionaries but can be deduced if one knows about rules in Spanish for making diminutives from base words:

CHULETILLAS

de conejo

CHULETILLAS

rabbit

Google failed to translation chuletillas but this I’ve previously found as the diminutive of chuleta (rib) so one can conclude these are simply small ribs, which would obviously be true when found a rabbit, but often this term is also used for very young (unweaned) lambs (lechazo or cordero lechal) or pigs (cochinillo or lechón) where leche (milk) is the key part of these terms.

So while I’ve fallen behind in posts at least I can provide a bit of information about food terms from León.

para picar and other restaurant phrases

Despite my lack of posts I have been continuing to study menus from restaurants in Spain, at the moment from a large list of restaurants in the city of Palencia. In that work I’ve thought of probably half a dozen posts I’d like to write. But posts are harder than study. I need concentrated time without interruptions and real focus. Study is mostly mechanical and I can do bits and pieces at a time, easily stopping and restarting later. I don’t know about you but I have to finish what I start, in one sitting, when it comes to posts. Of course 😉 if I did shorter posts maybe I wouldn’t have this problem. But, alas, I accumulate so much material it’s hard to neglect it all.

But there is a potentially relatively brief topic about some phrases one finds on many menus. The phrases are simple, but the literal translation of various machine translations aren’t very helpful. So let’s start with this one.

A menu was basically divided into three sections with these phrases (with Google translations):

para picar algo to chop something
para comer to eat
para acabar to finish

I doubt I’ll be doing any chopping while dining in a restaurant. Just para picar is more common than including the algo part, so what does this mean? para is just a preposition meaning ‘for’ or somewhat more helpful in this context ‘in order to’. picar has a host of meanings: to chop, mince, grind, cut, crush {to divide into pieces}; to sting, bite {by an animal}; to peck at {birds}; to break up (big pieces), chip (small pieces) {mining}; to punch; to needle {colloquial) to antagonize}; to spur on {horse racing}; to goad, prod {bullfighting}; to play staccato {music}; to rot, corrode, rust; to key in {computing} to eat, nibble on {(colloquial) to snack on}

Now we’re not bullfighting or mining or horse racing, so probably the sense related to eating best applies. While ‘to nibble on’ is the obvious dictionary definition to use the sense for this ‘to snack on’ probably fits best.

That then makes the following section, para comer (to eat) make more sense. After nibbling some snacks we’re ready for some serious eating. And para acabar precedes desserts, coffees and after-dinner drinks so that has an easy fit.

So let’s look at a few others which do translate reasonably well via machine literal translation:

a elegir to choose
para compartir to share
por encargo on request
a tu elección at your choice
eliges tú los ingredientes you choose the ingredients

Despite both a elegir and a tu elección having ‘choose’ or ‘choice’ they seem to have quite different purposes in menus. a elegir usually precedes a list where one may choose one item whereas a tu elección seems to allow one to “customize” an item.

And here are a few more

al peso
casero

al peso usually is in the pricing section, i.e. one can order an amount (by weight) of something and then the price will be determined by that weight. casero or casera (if preceding a feminine noun) is quite common and best translates as ‘homemade’ although often the mechanical translations just say ‘home’ or ‘house’ (for those translations that “claim” context sensitivity, not word-by-word literal) but of course that is the word that is the stem of this, casa. While ‘homemade’ clearly means made in this establishment it doesn’t necessarily mean ‘made from scratch’, or, IOW, it may just be assembled from purchased elements.

And, even though this is another post, some menus like to use brand names as the simple label of the item, especially at one establishment for desserts. So I learned MAGNUM MOMENTS is not some strange loanwords in Spanish, but just a European brand of ice cream in a particular portion and COPA BRASIL or DELISS LATTE are the names of packaged ice cream treats. Literal translation (or no translation at all as Google stumbled on these) isn’t going to help you much in picking one.

There are other phrases I’ve encountered but these where just in a few of the menus from a couple of restaurants. Someday I’ll have to complete a full list.

cata de vinos

I’ve been spending a lot (too much?) time trying to mine Spanish terms associated with wine. Discovering a large list of these is only somewhat useful for reading menus in Spain which is the primary purpose of my project. But sometimes you look where the light is, not where your keys are (this is a cliche in USA, perhaps not obvious to others).

Anyway cata de vinos is not quite what it says literally. The literal translation is simple – ‘wine tasting’, something rather obvious that any of us do when we drink wine, at a restaurant or at a party or wherever. BUT, there is a more formal meaning which is spelled out in this Spanish language Wikipedia article.  This is the kind of tasting “professionals” do to write all those articles (or a description of a particular wine on a menu) in all that wonderful (and frankly somewhat snobbish) wine jargon.

Any kind of tasting that involves comparative analysis requires training but also requires a vocabulary that can be fairly precisely defined and used by different tasters in the same way. We amateur wine “tasters” often don’t really know these terms.

I was surprised to find a number of fairly detailed sources, in Spanish (both the terms and definitions) covering “official” cata de vinos. While many of these terms would not have a precise (or sometimes any) meaning to us amateurs it’s still worthwhile to attempt to dig them out.

So this has been a long duration for me doing this since I found such rich and extensive, but difficult to process sources. By now I’d hoped to provide a more complete post on this subject but I’m still not done so this is just a fragment to demonstrate some of the issues of decoding vocabulary like this, especially for a non Spanish-speaker.

The source I’ll discuss here is Vocabulario del Vino that is reached by the Glosario tab at a site © 2011-2017 Enominer.  Try as I have I can’t actually figure out who/what Enomier is! (no translation I can find)    It is a web domain name as per https://www.enominer.com/ but it doesn’t have an About… to actually figure out what this is. I suspect it’s a publisher of magazines about wine but that’s just a guess. The page name containing the glossary is diccivino.html which, again I’m guessing, I think just a contraction of diccionario and vino. And in the many searches I’ve done trying to expand on the definitions here I seem to have encountered very similar lists at other URLs so despite the © at this site (no idea if it really is their copyrighted material or a copy from elsewhere) some/all of this glossary is published elsewhere on the web. Which, btw, doesn’t help me when I search to just find what I already have as text from this glossary. The sub-heading under the name at this site just says:

cultura del vino, desarrollo rural y ciencias de la tierra Wine culture, rural development and Earth sciences

As explanation of their glossary the webpage explains that it is presenting a formal terminology.

Toda ciencia o materia cuenta con un conjunto ordenado y sistemático de términos y de su correspondiente significado.

La viticultura y la enología no son una excepción.

Aún siendo comúnmente admitido que la cata de vinos es una acción de los sentidos que aprecian sensaciones de aromas y sabor con un contenido más subjetivo que objetivo,
no es menos cierto que hay un conjunto de normas y reglas no escritas que permiten traducir las apreciaciones sensoriales que influyen principalmente en la cata de un vino (vista, olfato y gusto) en valores que pueden comprobarse de una forma objetiva.

All science or matter has an ordered and systematic set of terms and their corresponding meaning.

Viticulture and winemaking are no exception.

Although it is commonly accepted that wine tasting is an action of the senses that appreciate sensations of aromas and flavor with a more subjective than objective content,
it is no less true that there is a set of rules and unwritten rules that allow the translation of sensory appreciations that influence mainly in the tasting of a wine (sight, smell and taste) in values ​​that can be checked in an objective way.

They divide their glossary in four sets:

Términos relativos al color Color-related terms
Términos relativos al aroma. Terms related to the aroma
Términos relativos al sabor. Terms related to taste
Otros términos. Other terms

So I’ve been churning through these using both Google and Microsoft to do the translations. So as a fragment of this work here are a few terms (from the sabor/taste set under R):

rancio

Vino oxidado, licoroso y seco. Es un defecto en los vinos de mesa, pero no en los vinos generosos.

stale Rancio

Rusty, dry and dried wine. It is a flaw in table wines, but not in generous wines.

Oxidized wine, liqueur and dry. It is a defect in table wines, but not in generous wines. 

Purple text is the Google Translation and black text is the Microsoft (inside MSWord translation). Note that Google doesn’t translate rancio to ANY English word. This has been common in analyzing the cata terms as many don’t seem to have a direct English equivalent and thus require a lot of research to make a guess. Microsoft picked ‘stale’. Looking at my usual two online dictionaries, spanishdict.com and Oxford I get a variety of English terms for rancio:  rancid (the obvious cognate), mellow (interesting this is the wine sense), ancient, long-established, stale (bread sense), antiquated, old-fashioned, sour and unpleasant. That’s a lot to choose from to decide what rancio means in the cata sense; IOW, how would a professional taster apply this term and if they were also fluent in English what English term would they use?

So we look at how it is defined. In the first phrase of the definition:

Vino oxidado, licoroso y seco.

Google and Microsoft have some significant difference. MSFT translates oxidado as ‘rusty’ (a valid dictionary literal translation) but Google uses the more appropriate ‘oxidized’. Even a somewhat amateur taster like me is familiar with ‘oxidized’ as a flaw in wine and ‘rusty’ is a chemical oxidation process but not likely to really apply in this case.  Likewise for licoroso  MSFT and Google disagree and in my research I think both are wrong (although Google’s liqueur  is closer.  licoroso is a concept that doesn’t really have a single English equivalent, only a definition which is ‘strong; of high alcoholic content’.

So we still haven’t quite got this figured out but the critical clue lies in the next sentence and the words vinos generosos. Both Google and Microsoft translate this literally (generous wines) BUT in this case this is a very specific word pair that really means a type of sherry as explained in this source which indicates generoso is a regulated term of Consejo Regulador.

Now actually this issue (sherry versus table wines) has occurred many times in studying the cata vocabulary.  I’ve learned that Spain is actually the leading wine producer (by volume) in the world, surpassing both France and Spain and also easily California (which as a former citizen, to me, is US, when it comes to wine). Simply put the fortified sherry wines are quite different from the lower alcohol table wines and thus tastes, aroma (bouquet) and color attributes can be quite different.

So in this case this source is telling us that an acceptable (possibly desirable) taste in sherry is not attractive in table wines BUT it is hardly the same as rancid (I doubt even in sherry this is good) or oxidized or any of the other translations of rancio. So if I were forced to pick an English equivalent I would go with ‘mellow’/’ancient’. And this shows the problem – these words don’t really describe this taste but none of the other translations do either.

In short, especially trying to understand the specialized vocabulary of cata de vinos you really have to have experience tasting, in Spain, in the context of all the wines available in Spain. It’s basically not possible to translate this over to English.

And since rancio looks a lot like rancid so a non-Spanish speaker who saw this as a term describing a wine it’s unlikely they’d try it, which, according to this, they shouldn’t if it is table wine but should if it’s sherry.

I had planned to discuss several other R taste terms but this post is already too long so I’ll merely mention one more:

retronasal

Es el aroma de menor intensidad que el olfato que se percibe por vía interna desde el paladar cuando respiramos por la boca con una pequeña cantidad de vino en la cavidad bucal.

Aftertaste Retronasal

It is the aroma of less intensity than the smell that is perceived by internal way from the palate when we breathe through the mouth with a small amount of wine in the oral cavity.

It is the aroma of less intensity than the smell that is perceived internally from the palate when we breathe through the mouth with a small amount of wine in the oral cavity.

Again the stuff in purple is Google’s Translation. Interestingly Microsoft actually picked a translated English word (aftertaste) for retronasal. But to my eye retronasal doesn’t even look Spanish at all and thus might be a loanword from English. In fact it is. But what does it mean? Actually finding a description of this in English wine tasting sources shows approximately the same thing as the translation (almost identical between Google and Microsoft) of the definition.

The funny thing is I didn’t know what retronasal meant BUT I’ve actually done exactly what it’s definition describes (if I was told this term I’ve forgotten but I don’t believe I ever knew it). Not long after moving to California and just as California was becoming a major player in wine (hard to believe it once was poorly regarded, decades ago) I took a course on California wines and how to do tasting at a community college in the Bay Area. We were actually taught how to do this – take a sip, hold the wine in your mouth, open your mouth slightly and breathe in. The sensation one gets is entirely different than just tasting (mouth closed) or the aftertaste (breathing in after swallowing). And if you’ve ever watched a professional tasting you see the tasters doing this (and of course, also spitting out the possibly very expensive wines they’re tasting).

Anyway this diversion in my project has taken a lot of time and hasn’t provided a great deal of material to put in my corpus for my menu translation app but it has certainly provided a lot of opportunity to see challenges in translation.

So I’ll leave you, Dear Reader, with a couple of quiz questions.

aguja

Vino con contenido carbónico perceptible al paladar y visiblemente observado al descorchar la botella. El gas carbónico procede de su propia fermentación y da sensación picante y agradable

needle

Wine with carbonic content perceptible to the palate and visibly observed when uncork the bottle. Carbon dioxide comes from its own fermentation and gives a pungent and pleasant feeling

quebrado

Vino alterado por las quiebras, que afectan al color.

broken

It was altered by bankruptcies which affect the color.

What English equivalent would you use for aguja and quebrado?

And there are about 50 more of these just in this source!

 

Another country menu; Tour de France

I’ve picked up my treadmill pace (and thus my miles on my “virtual” Camino trek) and so I’ve reached Frómista in Palencia province of Castile and León autonomous community. There I found four different eating establishments with online menus so I have a lot of raw source material to translate, analyze and feed into my corpus.

It’s been easier to get more miles on my stationary exercise equipment because now I’ve got the Tour de France on TV to inspire me (more than usual daytime TV shows). While I’ve mentioned I’ve now done 222.5 miles on treadmill I’ve also done 3665.6 miles on my stationary bike in the same time period. When I lived in California, counting biking to work, I usually did about 5000 miles a year so my boring stationary riding is about the comparable distance to what I used to do 25 years ago. But even with boring bike commuting it was a lot more fun riding real roads (especially in the San Francisco Bay Area which has some excellent biking routes) so at least with the Tour on TV I can make that my vicarious experience. So in the sprint to the finish in Stage 6 I managed to do 1.3 miles in the same time the racers did 1.5 miles – not bad, except they were climbing a very steep hill! I once got to participate in warmup laps with professional riders so I have a pretty good idea how much better they are than I am. I was going full out and just barely keeping up with the pros (well below Tour level, just local California pros) who were just loafing along. So I have no illusions of ever being capable of racing and certainly not at 72. But still it’s satisfying to “ride along” with the peleton.

But back to Spanish food and deciphering menus. Of the four possible in Frómista I’m reporting on the first, Villa De Fromista.  At first I thought Google Translate badly botched a few items but on further investigation I believe GT’s problem was due to the unusual HTML structure that made it difficult to tell boundaries between items and so Spanish words were “run together” in the text that Google translated. Since GT claims to use “context” (or sometimes described as using all words as a group rather than individual word-by-word translation) parsing the menu items incorrectly is bound to create confusion for it. But this is yet another cautionary warning to readers who might think in today’s high tech world a smartphone, with machine translation, is sufficient to decipher menus in a foreign language. So machine translation still has a ways to go and so my project to build a superior translation, keyed to the actual structure of menus in restaurants in Spain, still (if I succeed) could be more useful.

So, a few items of interest and I’ll get to the other three restaurants in another post. The restaurant has a MENÚ DEL PEREGRINO (Pilgrim’s Menu) for a mere 11’50€ and the MENÚ ESPECIAL for 19’50 €. It also offers GUARDA BICICLETAS which Google translates as ‘KEEPING BIKES’ and Microsoft translates as the more obvious ‘Bike Guard’ (presumably the same as a bike rack as called in USA) and this fits into my focus on the Tour. As I’ve studied the Camino in detail I have wondered about biking it instead of walking. I did do a long (escorted) ride in Germany and Austria once and I found biking to be a very pleasing pace for touring: not too fast and miss everything like with a car, but not as slow as walking and thus little change in scenery during the day. Since I’m averaging 26.2 miles/day on my stationary bike maybe working back up to 50 miles/day (which was my Germany pace) and thus completing the Camino in less than two weeks should be my focus (plus the possibility of going miles off the Camino to find better food or accommodations, plus fewer crowds).

Anyway back to the menu. The biggest mistake in translation which I don’t think is due to parsing the HTML is:

BACALAO REBOZADO CON PATATAS FRITAS COCO REBOZADO WITH FRIED POTATOES

Battered cod with french fries

where Microsoft’s translation (in green) is much better (certainly more useful). How bacalao became ‘coco’ is a real mystery. rebozado we’ve encountered before and is just a conjugation of the very rebozar (to coat with batter). So this really is a fairly simple item to translate.

And this is kinda funny but obviously a poor translation

REVUELTO DE SETAS REVOLTED MUSHROOMS

Mushroom Scramble

because we’ve covered revuelto already in this blog and ‘revolted’ isn’t even close.

LECHAZO ASADO (‘roasted lamb’, Microsoft got the animal right but missed this is one of the standard references to suckling (unweaned) lamb) and COCHINILLO ASADO (roast suckling pig) were totally botched by Google but it’s so bad it has to be due to parsing issues in the HTML.  Google displayed lettuce (actually lechuga) and chicken (actually pollo or gallina), neither of which is even close. Several times A LA PLANCHA becomes ‘to the plate’ which is a nominally correct literal translation but as we’ve covered in other posts this really means ‘grilled’ (as on iron griddle or skillet). ‘to the plate’ would be confusing it you didn’t know the more useful translation.

And this is an amusing translation that is actually more correct than it first seems:

ENTRECOT DE GANADO (lit: cattle or live stock) MAYOR (lit: older)
  (MADURADO MAS DE 25 DIAS)
ENTRECOT OF LARGEST LIVESTOCK
(MATURED MORE THAN 25 DAYS)

In other words this is just an aged Beef Entrecote where entrecôte (the French spelling) would mostly translate to ribeye. To a steak lover what isn’t in the menu is whether this is dry-aged or wet-aged. Unless the steak is tiny having this priced at 19’50 € (for all three courses) is either a very good deal or unlikely to be equivalent to this item in a premium steakhouse in the USA.

So, as usual, a more careful translation of the menu reveals a bit different view on what one might choose. Soon I’ll cover the other three restaurants in Frómista (that have online menus) as I trudge further west on my virtual Camino trek.

 

 

 

A few terms from ensaladas

I’m continuing to extract terms from a large set of recetas, having switched from postres (desserts) to ensaladas (salads).  Now thinking about salads there is a lot more diversity than merely leafy green stuff with some dressing so this is another lode of terms to find and add to my corpus. So here are a few fragments I’ve found:

Ensalada de verdinas con perdiz escabechada, receta fácil Salad of verdinas with pickled partridge, easy recipe

As usual terms that Google Translate doesn’t translate or has silly answers catch my attention, so what are verdinas? Oxford has an entry that translates to ‘moss’ and it’s plausible a salad might include moss. But this is what makes this source so useful, it’s not just titles of dishes, but the full recipe (ingredients and instructions) and a photo of the dish. In this case the photo reveals the clue to verdinas, showing a bag of alubia verdina which are called Verdinas De Nuestra Tierra in the ingredient list. IOW, since I’ve seen alubia often this is just a specific type of bean (visible in the photo) described here.

So moving on:

Remojón  granadino, receta fácil para el Verano Remodo  granadino, easy recipe for summer

Why Google Translate translate remojón to ‘remodo’ remains a mystery as I can’t find any association. Oxford literally translates remojón to ‘soaking’ and granadino to ‘of Granada’ which doesn’t help much. Fortunately this has no English equivalent but is

a specific recipe with oranges, cod, onions, tomatoes and olives, soaked in olive oil for at least four hours.

so an item like this has to be entered in my corpus with a “description” rather than a translation.

And finally:

Salpicón de bogavante con vinagreta de su coral Lobster salty  with vinaigrette of its coral

So we have two mysteries here: 1) what is a ‘salty’ (presumably the translation of salpicón), and, 2) what is ‘its coral’ (untranslated from coral in the Spanish)?

salpicón is the easier one since it’s a particular preparation of “chopped seafood or meat with onion, tomato and peppers” described here so ‘salty’ is a mysterious translation and inaccurate.

Salpicon (or salpicón, meaning “hodgepodge” or “medley” in Spanish) is a dish of one or more ingredients diced or minced and bound with a sauce or liquid.

But to figure out coral required looking at the recipe which fortunately describes it thusly:

the contents of the inside of the head (of the lobster) and the dark colored matter that is full of flavor

While I couldn’t find any English equivalent for coral (or any definition that matches the recipe) I believe this is a delicacy that some adventuresome foodies like. Now I’ve use the heads of shrimp and their shells to make stock so I suppose this is the same but this sound pretty yucky to me, which means if I had this salad and quite possibly enjoyed it I’d rather not know what coral is.

As the last tidbit the recipe text also includes two interesting terms:

  1. brutal bogavante which Google translated to ‘brutal lobster’. What’s this, some lobster with monster claws that fights back? Actually Oxford did explain that brutal has a colloquial meaning of ‘incredible’ or ‘amazing’ which is a lot more appealing (and reasonable guess at translation)
  2. and un platazo which didn’t appear in any dictionary but was found by search in an obscure (scanned) old text as ‘great dish’ which does fit the rest of the context so also is a likely translation.

These “guesses” I sometimes make have some amount of likelihood of being correct. I’m fairly certain of something like verdinas as a type of bean, but it is a guess and therefore has to be entered in my corpus which some uncertainty. And brutal and platazo have even less authoritative evidence and so would have higher uncertainty.  The Google Translates corresponding English to Spanish also can not be viewed as “certain”. Probably only translations appearing in one of the authoritative dictionaries can be entered as p=0.999 in the corpus. So getting as much volume as possible so every term in the corpus has multiple instances will be key to getting the best possible translation dataset.

 

naranjas escarchadas: Subtle difference between confitar and escarchar

Looking at recetas provides a different universe of cooking/food terms than looking at menus. I say this without “proof” but just as my subjective observation looking at a lot of both sources. The recetas tend to be more conversational/colloquial (both in titles and body text) than menus and so reveal a different glimpse of the Spanish terms.

One amusing example (on same webpage as my main topic here) is:

Whoopie Pies, la mejor forma de terminar una semana Whoopie Feet, the best way to finish a week

pies does indeed translate to ‘feet’ (as I learned in my post about names of mushroom parts) but in this case this is a real literal fail in that Whoopie Pie is of course English, not Spanish.

But moving on to main point. As usual I crunch through the Spanish (titles of recetas in this case) and get the side-by-side Google Translation to English, and then look for unusual or interesting translations, and then, investigate deeper. So here is the one that triggered this investigation and post.

Receta del lector: Naranjas escarchadas o confitadas en olla GM F y G Reader’s recipe: Candied or candied oranges in a GM GM pot

Now first of all, to just clear it up, I’ve encountered the olla GM F y G multiple times. This is a cooking device, somewhat similar to the popular InstantPot in USA. Not the issue here.

The issue is seeing ‘candied’ repeated in the English translation. Matching up the words this means Google thinks escarchadas  is ‘candied’ and confitadas  is ‘candied – which is it?

These are conjugations of the verbs escarchar and confitar, neither of which (in Oxford) directly translated to ‘candied’. In fact, that was my initial confusion as both translate to ‘to crystallize’.  spanishdict.com has more translations: confitar (to candy, to crystallize, to preserve in syrup) and escarchar  (to crystallize). A further clue is the noun, escarcha, which translates to ‘frost’.

The online Oxford dictionary, which I use extensively, offers both definitions and translations. The Diccionarío de la lengua Española from Real Academia Española is the authoritative source on Spanish definitions. So I used definitions from both these sources to attempt to figure out verb means what and why the author of this receta used both. As I’ve generally found the definitions in DLE are written in prose that gives Google Translate some issues so try to read past those.

For confitar:

Oxford

1 Recubrir frutas cocidas con un baño de azúcar. Coat cooked fruits with a sugar bath.
2 Hervir una fruta o un fruto seco en un almíbar concentrado. Boil a fruit or a dried fruit in a concentrated syrup.
3 Cocinar y conservar, en su propia grasa, carne de cerdo, pato o pavo. Cooking and keeping, in its own fat, pork, duck or turkey.

and DLE

1. Cubrir con un baño de azúcar una fruta o una semilla para hacerla más agradable al paladar. Cover with a bath from sugar a fruit or a seed for dothe plus nice to the palate.
2. Cocer una fruta en almíbar. Cook a fruit in syrup.
3. Endulzar, suavizar. Sweeten, soften.
4. Cocinar algo en aceite a fuego lento. Cook something in oil to fire slow.

Even I, with no fluency in Spanish, could translate #1 better than Google did.

Now let’s look at escarchar:

Oxford (you’ll see why I mentioned escarcha)

1 Poner sobre una cosa algo que imite la escarcha, como azúcar glas o cristalizado, polvos de talco o harina. To put on something something that imitates the frost, like icing or crystallized sugar, powders of talc or flour.
2 Cocer una fruta o un fruto seco en un almíbar concentrado que al evaporarse y enfriarse forma una capa de azúcar cristalizado en su superficie. Cook a fruit or a dried fruit in a concentrated syrup that evaporates and cools to form a layer of crystallized sugar on its surface.

and DLE

1. Preparar confituras de modo que el azúcar cristalice en su exterior como si fuese escarcha. Prepare jams from mode what he sugar crystallize in his Exterior as yes I was Frost.
2. Preparar una bebida alcohólica haciendo que el azúcar cristalice en una rama de anís introducida en la botella. Prepare a drink alcoholic doing what he sugar crystallize in a branch from anise introduced in the bottle.
3. Salpicar una superficie de partículas de talco o de otra sustancia brillante que imite la escarcha. Splash out a surface from particles from talcum powder or from other substance sparkly what imite the Frost.
4. En la alfarería del barro blanco, desleír la arcilla en el agua. In the pottery of the mud White, dissolve the clay in he Water.
5. Rizar, encrespar. Crimp, curl.
6. Congelarse el rocío que cae en las noches frías. Freeze he Dew what falls off in the nights cold.

Now with all this information the two verbs do have some overlap but also considerable difference. confitar is also cooking in oil, hence a confit and escarchar doesn’t include that definition.

But the key difference, with some knowledge of cooking, is that it’s questionable to consider, as Oxford does, confitar as ‘crystallize’ whereas that does apply (better) to escarchar. A crystallized fruit is not exactly the same as a candied fruit despite both being basically coated (and cooked in) sugar.

So why did the recipe use both? And which should it be? The recipe uses the verb confitar in the instructions portion, i.e. perform the action implied by confitar in the cooking device (perhaps its buttons are labeled as confitar, no idea). But the result of the process and the term consistently used for ‘candied’ is escarchadas. So that still leaves me with the question as to which is really best. Asking Google search the question, “what is candied in Spanish” just adds more confusion with the result: azucarado, which makes sense but doesn’t help. And Amazon’s Alexa decided to respond with confitaras.

Now as to my project (building a menu translation app) what I should have in my translation is all of these variations with both candied and crystallized as definitions. IOW, reading a menu is different than writing a receta. For my project I don’t need to know which word is the best choice in writing, just what do these words mean on menus. So I’ll leave it to fluent Spanish speakers to debate this.

 

 

Surprising ingredient !

I’m finding all sorts of interesting things trying to figure out recetas. I “research” the ones where the Google Translate seems to be incomplete or wrong, sometimes humorously weird. So this one was fun.

Chips de chocolate con petazetas, receta para microondas Chocolate chips with petazetas, recipe for microwaves

The untranslated word, petazetas, I assumed was something like almojábanas, an item with no English translation (i.e. cheese-flavored roll made with corn flour according to Oxford). Sometimes even though there is not an English equivalent either Oxford or spanishdict.com will provide a phrase description, as occurred with almojábanas. But no luck with petazetas.

That means I resort to searching. Try “what are petazetas” and you might get the same results as I did with Pop Rocks article in Wikipedia. Huh! Fortunately the first hit was “Peta Zetas, the funniest ingredient for your recipes” and the short summary of the Wikipedia article said

Pop Rocks is a candy, owned by Zeta Espacial S.A. Pop Rocks ingredients include sugar, … Zeta Espacial S.A. also sells popping candy internationally under other brands including Peta Zetas, Fizz Wiz and Magic Gum. In 2008, Dr. Marvin J.

so it looked possible these results were good.  But as frequently happens the best reference was the Spanish Wikipedia article on ‘Peta Zetas’. The description there matches some of the explanation in the recipe itself (link).  As evidence of globalization the receta also calls for using pringles type (this brand is now a generic term?).

 

A simple country menu

I happened to notice this small restaurant (see menu below) as I was examining the small town of Hornillos del Camino in Burgos Province as I just passed through on my virtual trek, now at a distance of 193.8 miles. It’s a rather inconspicuous place (in fact, somewhat hard to find) but has some interesting info in its Google listing. So here’s it’s simple menu (hand copied from photo, translated by Microsoft) and you can see a couple of the dishes (shown in blue in menu) in the photos on Google maps. This one is fairly easy to translate with just modest amount of learning Spanish; I only missed remolacha (beet, not a favorite for me) from memory.

Based on the photos I think I’d need more food after walking all day. As much as the Camino fascinates me, frankly, this part of it is really boring and this small town is uninteresting. But that may be part of the trip, plenty of opportunity to be contemplative here rather than exciting sight-seeing tourism.

Note: In case you’re not using to using Google Maps go to maps.google.com in your browser and then search for Hornillos del Camino, Burgos, Spain. You’ll see the Green Tree as a POI indicator – click on that to bring up the information page with photos.

Neson    4.8    ⊗⊗⊗⊗⊗

THE GREEN TREE

Calle San Pedro, 30, 09230 Hornillos del Camino, Burgos, Spain

 

Menu del día           9.5₡

Primero: First
Sopa del día Soup of the Day
Ensalada de queso de cabra con fresas y remolacha Goat cheese salad with strawberries and beetroot
Hummus de la casa con verdura y pan Hummus of the House with vegetables and bread
Segundo: Second
Currie de verduras Currie of Vegetables
Risotto de Espárragos Asparagus Risotto
Kimchi con Albondigas o Tofu Kimchi with meatballs or Tofu
Postre: Dessert
Postre de día Day Dessert
Pudín de pan y mantequilla Bread pudding and butter
Yogur con fruta y miel Yogurt with fruit and honey

Tidbits from Appetizers and Starters recetas

Following up on my previous post I’m going to comment, briefly, on a few fragments from the new source, specifically recetas (recipes) for Aperitivos y Entrantes (Appetizers and Starters). Even just the first page (of 26) has some interesting translation issues.

Tortillas de trigo integrales rellenas de langostinos en salsa de piquillos Whole wheat tortillas stuffed with prawns in piquillo sauce

I’ve previously mentioned that tortilla is one of those words that has different meaning in Spain than in, say, Mexico. In Spain this is an egg-and-potato dish somewhat akin to the Italian frittata. But in this case there is a photo of the dish and sure enough it’s a plain old tortilla as we’d call it in the USA.

Palmeras saladas con tapenade negro y pesto verde Salted palm trees with black tapenade and green pesto

This is one of those cases where I shouldn’t jump to a conclusion (or label this as a ‘literal fail’). I figured ‘trees’ didn’t fit and it was probably palm ‘hearts’ (a more normal ingredient). But no, this is a cute pasty where a sheet of puff pasty is stuff and then rolled up from both ends and sliced and baked, making something that does look like a palm tree.

Brazo de gitano salado de pimientos del piquillo, queso, canónigos y nueces Salty gypsy arm of piquillo peppers, cheese, lamb’s lettuce and walnuts

Here I figured translating brazo as arm was probably wrong so I went to look up brazo in Oxford. Oxford helpfully provides some typing completion aids so as I was typing brazo it suggested the phrase brazo de gitano so that’s a bit two specific not to be the match, whose definition (Spanish from Oxford, English from Google Translate)

Pastel dulce de forma cilíndrica elaborado con una capa de bizcocho que se rellena con alguna crema y se enrolla sobre sí misma. Sweet cylindrical cake made with a layer of sponge cake that is filled with some cream and rolled on itself.

I was hoping to find the origin of this term so there I use search but in the unclear trick I’ve mentioned in a previous post an English Wikipedia article is served by Google search (I now suspect they translate to English and search Wikipedia). So this appears to be a “Swiss roll”  or  ‘jelly roll’ but still where does this come from? This article has only a partial explanation.

And finally is ‘cherry tomato’ really just tomates cherry? The standard Spanish word for ‘cherry’ is cereza, but again using Oxford typing completion aid it uses both cereza and cherry following tomate. So a loanword from English filters into Spain?